Excessive temperatures may be an impediment in livestock manufacturing notably in tropical areas. Broilers are extra inclined to excessive ambient temperatures as a result of they lack sweat glands to dissipate warmth from their our bodies. This text goals to clarify dietary methods to assist alleviate warmth stress.
Suttisak Boonyoung, Ph.D., Nutritionist, Cobb Asia Pacific
Warmth stress happens when the ambient temperature is increased than the thermo-neutral zone. Warmth stress may be categorized into 2 foremost varieties primarily based on the period of publicity: quick time period (acute, lower than 1 week) or long run (power, higher than 1 week). Warmth stress can impression chicken physiology and progress efficiency resulting in welfare considerations and financial losses in broiler manufacturing. Any indicators of warmth stress needs to be addressed instantly. This text goals to clarify dietary methods to assist alleviate warmth stress.
Warmth stress impacts on broiler progress efficiency and physiology
The damaging impacts of warmth stress on broiler progress and physiology are proven in Determine 1. Warmth stress can lower feed consumption and physique weight. The discount of feed consumption is a mechanism to scale back metabolic warmth manufacturing. In distinction, water consumption will increase which may negatively impression litter high quality. At excessive physique temperatures, a broiler’s respiratory fee will improve to advertise evaporative cooling via panting. This reduces blood CO2 and causes respiratory alkalosis.
Warmth stress additionally has an adversarial impression on the immune system effectivity by decreasing the lymphoid organ weights together with the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. Nutrient utilization is adversely impacted, which, in flip, might compromise intestine well being. As well as, warmth stress usually has a damaging impression on meat high quality by decreasing muscle water holding capability and rising fats deposition and drip loss. Intervals of excessive warmth publicity result in muscle breakdown to supply amino acid substrates for gluconeogenesis. Warmth stress can even trigger oxidative stress by elevating free radicals. Free radicals can injury intestinal cell membranes and very important elements leading to apoptosis, intestinal irritation, and leaky intestine syndrome.
Nutrient and feed formulation methods
Protein and amino acids
Throughout warmth publicity, proteins denature and protein synthesis is impaired. Furthermore, the discount of feed consumption throughout warmth stress causes decrease protein and amino acid consumption that may negatively impression progress. Number of protein sources which can be excessive in digestible protein and amino acids, can cut back the impression of warmth stress by enhancing protein utilization and decreasing warmth manufacturing throughout digestion. The ratio of every amino acid (Very best amino acid) needs to be balanced to enhance protein utilization. The applying of artificial amino acids is one consideration to keep up balanced amino acids within the food plan.
Dietary electrolyte stability (DEB) to stop alkalosis
Electrolytes are solubilized compounds that assist to keep up acid-base stability in periods of respiratory alkalosis. In broiler diet, the principle electrolytes are sodium (Na), potassium (Ok) and Chlorine (Cl). Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) are incessantly used as Na and Cl in broiler diets and Ok is often obtained from soybean meal. For Cobb diets, every mineral has a minimal requirement akin to 0.16 to 0.23% for Na, 0.16 to 0.3% for Cl, and 0.6 to 0.95% for Ok (please discuss with our broiler diet dietary supplements for extra particulars accessible at Cobb-Vantress.com). To keep up electrolyte stability, the diets should preserve the right ratio of cations (Na, Ok) and anions (Cl).
Nutritional vitamins and minerals to bind free radicals
Nutritional vitamins and minerals have antioxidant properties that may cut back the damaging impression of free radicals attributable to warmth stress. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble vitamin at 100 to 250 mg/Kg can enhance broiler progress efficiency throughout warmth publicity. Though birds can synthesize vitamin C from glucose within the kidneys, the supplementation of vitamin C at 200 mg/Kg within the food plan can cut back the damaging results of warmth stress. Selenium is a vital mobile antioxidant and has a minimal requirement of 0.35 mg/Kg feed. This mineral additionally has a synergistic impact with vitamin E.
Usually, the addition of nutritional vitamins and minerals 10 to twenty% above the minimal requirement may also help forestall diet deficiencies since feed consumption can lower beneath warmth stress. Seek the advice of together with your nutritionist earlier than making any giant changes in feed formulations.
Zinc can enhance broiler efficiency and stop lipid oxidation in muscle, and is vital as dietary lipid may be simply oxidized at excessive temperatures. Lipid oxidation may be prevented by including antioxidants to the food plan (BHA, BHT and ethoxyquin).
Enzyme supplementation can enhance nutrient digestion and cut back metabolic warmth. There are various commercially accessible cereal-based enzymes. Such enzymes assault non-starch polysaccharides or NSPs. A lot of the NSPs are within the cell partitions of cereal grains akin to wheat, corn, oats and even soybeans, and embody xylans, beta-glucans and mannans. Throughout scorching climate, some nutritionists have had success utilizing enzymes that focus on all three NSPs. Supporting feed digestion will decrease warmth manufacturing. Relying upon the enzymes accessible in particular areas, multiple enzyme product could also be wanted to focus on completely different NSPs.
Feed formulation and feed high quality
Feed may be formulated to assist alleviate the impact of warmth stress. The partial alternative of vitality sources from carbohydrates to lipids is a standard follow as a result of lipids generate a decrease warmth increment than carbohydrates. Lipids additionally get pleasure from slowing feed passage within the intestine giving extra time for nutrient digestion. The collection of high quality elements containing a excessive ratio between internet and metabolizable vitality (NE/ME) is another choice to scale back metabolic warmth manufacturing.
Feed high quality is one other consideration to alleviate warmth stress in broiler. Usually, broilers generate extra warmth and use increased vitality for his or her consuming exercise when given mash feed in comparison with pelleted feed. So, good pellet high quality can alleviate warmth stress by decreasing vitality used throughout consuming exercise. Usually, tremendous pellets (<1000 um) shouldn’t compose greater than 10 to fifteen% of the food plan. The pellet sturdiness index (PDI) needs to be increased than 95%.
Different dietary approaches
There are different feed components that may cut back the impression of warmth stress. Betaine is a methyl donor and may enhance progress efficiency and meat high quality. The supplementation of betaine at 1000 to 2000 mg/Kg feed improved feed consumption and progress in warmth confused birds.
Probiotics and prebiotics are feed components that may elevate intestine well being impaired by warmth publicity. It will end in improved broiler progress efficiency. Phytogenic compounds akin to Sanguinarine and curcumin had been additionally reported to assist handle warmth stress circumstances resulting from their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Consider any feed additive completely earlier than utilizing it as part of regular formulation.
Water performs many physiological roles in broilers. Throughout warmth stress, water is misplaced via the respiratory tract in periods of panting. In response, water consumption is elevated in broilers as a way of sustaining thermoregulatory. Water administration throughout warmth publicity is essential to scale back warmth stress. Electrolytes and nutritional vitamins may be added into the consuming water together with sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, and vitamin C. Nonetheless, the addition of electrolytes by way of consuming water needs to be monitored to stop moist litter circumstances and biofilms within the water system. It is extremely vital to watch the temperature of the consuming water and hold it beneath 25 °C in scorching environments.
Warmth stress could cause points for broiler efficiency and meat high quality notably in tropical areas. Diet and feed high quality are partial methods to alleviate the damaging results of warmth stress. Farm administration can be an vital key to assuaging this situation. In whole, warmth stress should be addressed by a collective effort of administration and diet.