Spain is likely one of the main European international locations in poultry manufacturing and commerce. In 2020, it ranked in fourth place in poultry meat manufacturing and in third place in egg manufacturing. Over the previous decade, it additionally turned one of many main egg and poultry meat exporting international locations. In two papers, the dynamics and patterns of the 2 sectors will likely be analysed, masking the last decade between 2010 and 2020.
Hans-Wilhelm Windhorst – The creator is Professor emeritus on the College of Vechta and visiting Professor on the College of Veterinary Medication, Hannover, Germany
The position of the Spanish poultry meat trade in home agriculture and within the EU
Poultry meat manufacturing performs an vital position within the Spanish poultry trade and in agriculture (Desk 1). A better take a look at the event between 2010 and 2020 reveals that in the direction of the tip of the previous decade, the contribution to complete animal manufacturing and agriculture decreased. One cause for the declining worth of poultry meat manufacturing is the quick development of the swine trade, which in 2020 reached a share of 42.8% in animal manufacturing and of 16.4% in complete agriculture; a second, the impacts of the Covid 19-pandemic.
In 2020, Spain ranked in second place behind Poland in poultry meat manufacturing with a share of 12.7% within the EU (27) manufacturing quantity (Desk 2). In a later a part of the paper, the extraordinary dynamics since 2010 will likely be documented.
Exceptional development in poultry meat manufacturing
Poultry slaughter elevated from 695 mill. birds in 2010 to 801 mill. in 2020 or by 15.2%. Desk 3 paperwork that turkey slaughter greater than doubled within the analysed decade whereas broiler slaughter grew by 17.4%.One has to think about, nevertheless, the distinction within the slaughter weight. Whereas the common slaughter weight of broilers was 2.0 kg in 2020, the common weight of a slaughtered turkey was 7.7 kg. The slaughter weight of broilers elevated solely barely from 1.9 to 2.0 kg, whereas that of turkeys modified significantly. It elevated from 8.9 kg to 9.2 kg between 2010 and 2012 after which continuously fell within the following years to solely 7.7 kg in 2020. This can be a results of the decrease weight of toms and the next share of hens. Between 2010 and 2020, Spanish poultry meat manufacturing elevated from 1.3 mill. t to 1.7 mill. t or by 27.3% (Desk 4, Determine 1). To this development, broiler meat contributed 267,000 t respectively 72.4% and turkey meat 115,000 t or 31.2%. Because the manufacturing quantity of different meat varieties decreased, absolutely the development of the 2 important meat varieties was larger than the overall enhance of poultry meat. It’s price noting that the relative development of broiler meat manufacturing was larger than that of broiler slaughter, ensuing from the expansion within the common slaughter weight. The alternative was the case with turkey meat, ensuing from the lowering common slaughter weight. To the overall manufacturing quantity of poultry meat, broilers contributed 81.5%, turkeys 14.2%. The share of geese and geese was solely of minor significance.
Excessive sectoral regional focus in poultry meat manufacturing
The variety of poultry farms fell from 5,345 in 2010 to 4,986 in 2020 or by 6.7%. Parallel to the sectoral focus, poultry meat manufacturing elevated by 27.3% documenting the expansion of the common poultry farm. Desk 5 paperwork the regional focus of poultry farms and of poultry manufacturing. A comparability of the information exhibits that the spatial patterns of the distribution of the poultry farms and the quantity of meat manufacturing differed. A lot of the farms have been situated in Cataluña whereas Andalucía had the very best share in meat manufacturing. The regional focus in manufacturing was significantly larger than that of poultry farms. Clearly, the common farm measurement is larger in Andalucía, Cataluña and Valencia than in Galicia and Castile and León.
From deficit to surplus – outstanding modifications in poultry meat commerceA comparability of the event of poultry meat exports and imports reveals a outstanding dynamics, exports elevated significantly whereas the import quantity declined. Regardless of a rising per capita consumption, from 2014 onwards, overseas commerce with poultry meat confirmed a constructive stability (Determine 2, Desk 6). Whereas the exports grew by 102,000 t or by 73.2%, imports elevated by solely 23,200 t or 11.9%. Despite the fact that the exports centered on EU member international locations, non-EU international locations turned extra vital. In 2020, 59.1% of the exports had an EU (27) member nation as a vacation spot and 40.9% a non-EU nation. In distinction, 73.9% of the poultry meat imports got here from an EU (27) member nation and solely 26.1% from a non-EU nation.
A better take a look at Determine 3 exhibits the appreciable lower of the exports to EU member international locations previously two years. The explanations have been Avian Influenza outbreaks, which resulted in import stops, and the Covid-9 pandemic, which triggered a lowering demand due to lockdowns in a number of international locations. Determine 4 paperwork the decrease imports from EU member international locations from 2017 on. Right here, too, Avian Influenza outbreaks in a number of international locations of origin and the Covid-19 pandemic have been the principle steering elements. In exports in addition to in imports non-EU international locations gained in significance in 2020.Desk 7 lists the 5 main international locations of vacation spot for the exports to EU (28) member international locations respectively to non-EU international locations. The regional focus in intra-EU commerce was extraordinarily excessive. The 5 listed international locations shared 97.3% of the export quantity, Portugal and France collectively 79.9%. Brief transportation distances, which resulted in decrease prices, have been an vital steering issue. In distinction, the regional focus in commerce with non-EU international locations was a lot decrease. Nonetheless, the 5 main international locations shared over two thirds of the export quantity, with South Africa in an unchallenged high place. In 2020, 59.2% of the exports to EU member international locations was broiler meat and 22.7% turkey meat. With a share of 72.4%, broiler meat dominated exports to non-EU international locations, adopted by turkey meat with 19.2%.Poultry meat imports reached a most with 234,000 t in 2018. Within the following two years they fell to 218,600 t. EU (28) member international locations contributed 181,640 t or 73.9%, non-EU international locations nearly 37,000 t respectively 26.1%. Desk 8 lists the 5 main EU (28) and non-EU international locations of origin. Relating to the EU, France, Germany and Poland have been within the high three positions with a share of collectively 68.3%. Brazil was the main non-EU nation relating to imports with a share of 54.2%, adopted by China with 39.3%. Broiler meat shared 87.9% within the imports from non-EU international locations. It contributed 30.2% to the imports from EU international locations, turkey meat 23.7%. Processed poultry merchandise ranked in first place, nevertheless, with a share of 36.4%.
The previous evaluation of the commerce relations confirmed that exports in addition to imports decreased significantly between 2018 and 2020. Avian influenza outbreaks and the Covid-19 pandemic have been the principle elements, which triggered the downward development.
Abstract and views
Regardless of the outstanding dynamics, manufacturing grew by over 15% between 2020 and 2015, the poultry trade misplaced in significance relating to the worth of manufacturing due to the steep enhance of the swine trade and the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic. Avian Influenza outbreaks in 2020 led to import stops by a number of international locations of vacation spot for poultry meat exports; as well as, the lowering demand due to the Covid-19 pandemic in most of those international locations resulted in a substantial discount of the export quantity. Parallel to this improvement, imports decreased, ensuing from the decrease home demand, particularly within the vacationer sector, and Avian Influenza outbreaks in a number of international locations of origin for the imports. If the downward development may be stopped, will to a excessive diploma rely upon the long run dynamics of the Covid-19 pandemic, not solely in Spain.
Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación (MAPA), Dirección Common de Producciones y Mercados Agrarios (Ed.): El sector de la avicultura de carne en cifras. Madrid, Julio 2021.